McMaster Handwriting Assessment Protocol (62 pages)
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By: Nancy Pollock, Julia Lockhart, Beth Blowes, Katie Semple, Melissa Webster, Lucy Farhat, Jessica Jacobson, Jeanette Bradley, Sarah Brunetti, School of Rehabilitation Science, McMaster University (2009)

Occupational Therapy Handwriting Resource Center
See also: Psychological Publications Visual-Motor (Neuro-Sensory integration) Assessments
o Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting (ETCH ): measures the legibility in word, letter and numeral percentages, as well as letters per minute. Pencil control, near and far point copying, manuscript to cursive translation, dictation and sentence completion are included.
o Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Fine Motor Proficiency assesses motor proficiency of students without disabilities, as well as those with serious motor dysfunctions and developmental difficulties. It is administered to children from ages 4 years 6 months to 14 years 6 months. Occupational Therapists typically administer only the fine motor development subtests which include:
• response speed
• visual-motor control
• upper-limb speed and dexterity
o Peabody Developmental Motor Scales is composed of six subtests that measure inter-related motor abilities that develop early in life. It assesses the motor skills of children from birth through 5 years of age. Occupational Therapists typically administer the grasping and visual-motor subtests.
o Beery VMI is designed for children from 2-18 years old. It has the short or full formats which each take 10-15 minutes, with supplemental visual perception test and motor coordination tests that take 5 minutes each. It is primarily used as a screen for visual-motor deficits that can lead to learning, neuropsychological, and behavior problems.
o Test of Visual Motor Skills-Revised (TVMS-R) is designed for children from 3-14 years old. Testing time is 3-6 minutes; scoring typically takes 15-20 minutes. This test consists of 23 geometric forms. The administrator looks at a number of visual motor characteristics for each design, and then compiles a list of the student's strengths and weaknesses.
o Test of Visual Perceptual Skills- Revised (TVPS-R) is a non-motor (only pointing required) assessment designed for children 4-13 years old. The subtests include these areas: visual discrimination, visual memory, visual-spatial relationships, visual form constance, visual sequential memory, visual figure-ground, and visual closure. This test requires 10-20 minutes of testing time, and 3-5 minutes to score.
o Barchowsky Fluent Method: This method introduces letters as members of a family, rather than alphabetically. Most letters fall into the "u" or "n" family. The manual offers information on paper position, posture, exercise patterns to facilitate movement, and letter formation.
o Callirobics: The child traces patterns while listening to melodies. There are pre-writing, print and cursive versions available.
o Handwriting Help for Kids: Written by an occupational therapist, the child "masters the correct feel of the letters, writing from the top is encouraged. There are workbooks for letters, words, sentences in print and cursive.
o Pen Notes: reusable clear plastic sheets; teaches letter direction, letter connections, stroke sequences, and spacing.

Developing a Written Productivity Profile:
DeCoste, D. (2005). Assistive Technology Assessment: Developing a Written Productivity Profile. Volo, IL: Don Johnston, Inc.
Comparing handwriting to keyboarding: Handwriting Profile Assessment

Handwriting Speed Assessment
Penny Allcock describes below how she has carried out a pilot study to establish standardised scores for handwriting speeds. Through participation assisted by Patoss members a broader sample was gathered and analysed to help establish proper benchmarks of writing speed for different year groups. Penny has devised a simple instruction pack, student sheet and scoring information, which you will be able to use in your school setting.

Interrater reliability of a new handwriting assessment battery for adults.
Existing handwriting assessments have been validated for use with children (Amundson, 2002; Feder & Majnemer, 2003; Reisman, 1993; Wallen, Bonney, & Lennox, 1996). One test, the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting (ETCH; Amundson, 1995), appeared to be suitable for use and adaptation with adults. Although designed to measure writing legibility in young children (Feder & Majnemer, 2003), the subtests contain characters that both children and adults write. For example, participants are required to write letters of the alphabet (printed and cursive), numbers, and a self-generated sentence. Thus, several subtests of the ETCH could be adapted for use with adults.
In addition to adapting a pediatric test, we reviewed relevant subtests of existing upper-limb assessments. One such test was the Motor Assessment Scale (MAS; Carr, Shepherd, Nordholm, & Lynne, 1985) for use with adults after a stroke. The MAS includes two tests of pen control, requiring a person to draw 10 lines and 10 dots in a specified time. Another assessment, the Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function (Jebsen, Taylor, Trieschmann, Trotter, & Howard, 1969) includes seven subtests, one of which evaluates writing speed. Participants are asked to copy a sentence of 24 letters as quickly as possible. The written output is timed. Using subtests from one pediatric and these two adult upper-limb assessments, McCluskey and Lannin (2003) developed the Handwriting Assessment Battery (HAB). The aims of this study were to develop, pilot, and explore the interrater reliability of the HAB.

Handwriting Assessment Sheet